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Disability, as well as other concepts including: abnormal, non-normal, and normalcy came from this.With the rise of eugenics in the latter part of the nineteenth century, such deviations were viewed as dangerous to the health of entire populations.At the end of the Second World War, with the example of Nazi eugenics, eugenics faded from public discourse, and increasingly disability cohered into a set of attributes that medicine could attend to – whether through augmentation, rehabilitation, or treatment.In both contemporary and modern history, disability was often viewed as a by-product of incest between first-degree relatives or second-degree relatives.Disability is an impairment that may be cognitive, developmental, intellectual, mental, physical, sensory, or some combination of these.It substantially affects a person's life activities and may be present from birth or occur during a person's lifetime.It may be used to refer to physical or mental attributes that some institutions, particularly medicine, view as needing to be fixed (the medical model).It may refer to limitations imposed on people by the constraints of an ableist society (the social model).

Disability or impairment are commonly used, as are more specific terms, such as blind (to describe having no vision at all) or visually impaired (to describe having limited vision).It gauges one's ability to perform the physical tasks of daily life and the ease with which these tasks are performed.PFC declines with advancing age to result in frailty, cognitive disorders, and/or physical disorders, all of which may lead to labeling individuals as disabled.In the early modern period there was a shift to seeking biological causes for physical and mental differences, as well as heightened interest in demarcating categories: for example, Ambroise Pare, in the sixteenth century, wrote of "monsters", "prodigies", and "the maimed".The European Enlightenment's emphases on knowledge derived from reason and on the value of natural science to human progress helped spawn the birth of institutions and associated knowledge systems that observed and categorized human beings; among these, the ones significant to the development of today's concepts of disability were asylums, clinics, and, prisons.

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